Built on the banks
of the Thames River, London had been a thriving
port since ancient times. As the capital city,
it was the center of social and economic
developments; it was also the place to which
young people came to learn trades as
apprentices, to get the best wages for even
unskilled jobs, and fulfill their dreams.
beads, guns and other goods were rare in Africa
and the American Colonies where they could be
sold for much more than in England or other
European countries. The potential wealth to be
made from the triangular trade between Europe,
Africa and the Americas came from this
difference in demand. The English were able to
sell manufactured goods in exchange for raw
materials and luxury items.
Imports to Great
the Henrietta Marie
The slave trading
voyage was a costly undertaking, which often
required backing of several investors. Having a
relatively small stake in several voyages
was more prudent for the investor than supplying
the entire backing for one ship.
Each voyage had a
number of problems to contend with from bad
weather to slave revolts and payment problems.
Some merchants did well in the trade, while
others went bankrupt.
case of the Henrietta Marie, one of the
backers was William Deacon, the captain of her
first slaving voyage. Others included bead
merchants, pewterers and ironmongers. The Henrietta
Marie did not survive the risks of the slave
trade, causing heaving losses to those who had
risked their capital in her voyage.
Starke consigned the equivalent of $12,000 worth
of glass beads to the cargo of the Henrietta
Marie. These beads were a popular trade item
where they were considered a rarity and
often made it into royal regalia. Although this
was not the largest investment, Starke may have been
the most important investor. He had visited
Virginia in North America, and traded extensively
with the colony where he owned several
plantations. He had many friends in the slave
trade and preferred to have vessels in which he
had invested sail to New Calabar - the destination
of the Henrietta Marie.
the principal investors of the second voyage of
the Henrietta Marie was the wealthy gentlemen -
merchant Anthony Tournay (1650-1726) who
contributed 33 tons of iron for trade with the
Africans. The value of this cargo would translate
into roughly $265,000 in today's dollars. Much of
it was in the form of trade bars, to be sold in
Africa. He might have supplied the iron for the
shackles used to restrain the slaves.
Some of the bars that were discovered on the wreck
site were marked with symbols and initials.
Possibly "G" stood for
"Guinea" meaning West Africa
prominent citizen of his day, Tournay was known
for his charitable contributions: he frequently
gave alms to the poor and left several large
charitable bequests to various schools and
hospitals. Tournay had acquired much of his wealth
through supplying the Royal navy with iron barrel
hoops and barrels during the war of 1689-1697.
The Coat of
Arms of Anthony Tournay ******
Wynchcombe was one of the minor investors, one
who had no previous interest in the slave trade.
He was a master pewterer by trade and provided
tankards, bowls, plates, and other pewterware to
be traded in Africa, and possibly Jamaica. The
total value of his investment was roughly the
equivalent of a year's wages for and unskilled
examples of pewter spoons recovered from the
of the Mariners' Museum
**Artist: L.P. Boltard, c. 1750
***Courtesy of the Musees des Ducs de Bretagne
****Photo by Dylan Kibler
*****Artist: David P. Moore
******Courtesy of the Public Records Office,
*******Denis Diderot: L'Enclyopedie
********Artist: Robert Cummings